Active ingredient in vinegar. It is administered in the back passage
during anoscopy to identify AIN areas and biopsy them.
Intraepithelial Neoplasia is characterised by the presence of abnormal
cells that it is believed that it may precede anal cancer.
Grade 1 AIN is Anal
Intraepithelial Neoplasia characterised by mild changes of the abnormal
Grade 2 AIN is Anal
Intraepithelial Neoplasia characterised by moderate changes of the
Grade 3 AIN is Anal
Intraepithelial Neoplasia characterised by severe changes of the
abnormal cells. It is thought to be one step before anal cancer.
Pertaining to the
anus, the back passage.
The anal canal is
the final part of the digestive tract. It is situated between the rectum
and anus. It is approximately 3 to 4 cm long and narrower than the
Anal cancer arises
from the cells around the anal opening (verge) or within the anal canal
up to its junction with the rectum. Most anal cancers arise from skin
cells and are called squamous cell carcinomas. Some arise from the
special mucosal cells lining the upper anal canal. Cells that are
becoming malignant but have not invaded below the surface are
"pre-cancerous" This condition is called Bowen's disease (AIN 3).
Anal cytology may
become a useful screening tool to detect AIN, particularly in
HIV-positive men. It is similar to the cervical PAP test. It detects
abnormal cells (AIN) that have been swabbed from the anus.
Synonym of AIN.
Anal intraepithelial Neoplasia
characterised by the presence of abnormal cells that it is believed that
it may precede anal cancer.
Condylomata acuminata. A very contagious sexually transmitted viral
infection, caused by human papillomavirus. A wart is a generally small,
rough with a cauliflower-like appearance.
examination of the anal canal with an anoscope
(Back passage) The
anus is the name for the muscular area at the very end of the large
bowel. It is the muscle which opens and closes to control bowel
movements, and is where the bowel opens to the outside of the body. This
muscle is also called a sphincter.
The removal of a
sample of tissue followed by microscopic examination by a pathologist to
see whether abnormal or cancer cells are present.
Cancer describes a
set of diseases in which normal cells in the body, through a series of
genetic changes, lose the ability to control their growth and to respect
their neighbors. As cancers grow, they invade the tissues around them
(local invasion). They may also spread to other locations in the body
via the blood vessels or lymphatic channels where they may implant and
grow (metastases). Tumors, or growths in the body, may be benign or
malignant (cancerous). When they are benign they may grow but they do
not spread to other locations. Malignant tumors have the ability to
invade deeply and to spread (metastasize).
a malignant disease
in the neck of the womb located at the top of the vagina
Intraepithelial Neoplasia below.
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Intraepithelial Neoplasia is a general term for the growth of abnormal
cells on the surface of the cervix. Numbers from 1 to 3 may be used to
describe how much of the cervix contains abnormal cells similarly to AIN
The study of cells
taken as samples during procedures like a Pap smear
Abnormal cells that
are not cancer.
blood vessels in and around the anus that cause itching, pain, and
immunodeficiency virus. The virus that causes AIDS
Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a disease caused by the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which kills or impairs cells of the immune
system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections
and certain cancers. HIV is most commonly spread by sexual contact with
an infected partner. The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages
of an HIV infection.
See Human Papilloma
A vaccine, not yet
available, that Researchers from several U.S. medical institutions have
reported that it provides protection against HPV16 infection and related
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) for at least 3.5 years after
immunization. There are no data for its use in AIN yet.
Human Papilloma Virus
Virus is a group of viruses that can cause infection in the skin surface
of different areas of the body including the genital area. The virus can
cause visible warts of the skin or may only cause microscopic changes in
the cells of the skin.
A substance that
improves the body's natural response to infection and disease. It is
being studied as a topical agent (something used on the surface of the
body) for the prevention of some types of cancer. It belongs to the
family of drugs called biological response modifiers.
patients are those patients whose immune systems are in a very weakened
state. It is associated with HIV and In some cases, immunosuppression
may be attributed to medications used to help fight organ transplant
Having a weakened
immune system caused by certain diseases or drugs. This condition is
sometimes present in the very young and the very old, in patients with
HIV, and in patients who have received a bone marrow transplant
Inside the anus (back passage) or in the anal canal
within or among the
cells of the tissues that cover body surfaces and line cavities such as
an abnormal cell
growth that may progress to cancer
the skin around the
The use of a
chemical, given orally (by mouth), intravenously (through the blood
vessels) or topically (directly to the skin), that can be activated or
energized by light to destroy a target tissue. This activation causes
the formation of new molecules and free radicals that form other
chemicals that, in turn, may destroy the targeted material to a varying
A term used to
describe a condition that may or is likely to become cancer if left
untreated. Also called premalignant
examination of the anus and part of the rectum by means of a proctoscope
Skin tags (anal)
Warts (in general)
A wart is a
generally small, rough, cauliflower-like growth, typically on hands and
feet. Warts are common and contagious, and are caused by a viral
infection, specifically by the aerobic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). They
typically disappear after a few months but can last for years and can
recur. A few Papilloma viruses are known to cause cancer